O Cebreiro and the Gates of Galicia

After a morning walk from La Laguna savoring the silent company of our fellow peregrinos, we crested the top of a mountain range separating the Spanish province of Leon from Galicia and enjoyed spectacular views from the summits of the Galician village of O Cebreiro.

Crossing into IMG_5687Galicia, the landscape and character of the Camino Frances is markedly differe
nt. The descent from O Cebreiro is the end of the last hard mountainous stretch of the Camino. From the summits of O Cebreiro, the Fordham peregrinos had sprawling panoramas of the O Courel Mountains and the Lor River watershed.

The O Courel are part of a series of mountain ranges that ring the Galician interior and geographically isolate the province from Portugal and the rest of Spain. Galicia is culturally and linguistically distinct from neighboring regions of Spain. Gallego, along with Spanish, is a co-  official language of Galicia.

Once we entered O Cebreiro, our silent walk was concluded and everyone began to speak, especially me [Shanly] as I was filled with energy. O Cebreiro was quiet, but it gradually became louder as more Fordham peregrinos arrived. We all found ourselves in front of the church of Santa Maria la Real, which prides itself as being one of the oldest landmarks on the Camino. Originally constructed as a pre-Romanesque church in the 9th century, it has since been the site of a holy miracle. As tradition holds, O Cebreiro is the site of the Holy Grail. During the 14th century, a terrible storm snowed in the village, causing the local priest to believe that no one would come to celebrate mass. He was provedIMG_5704 wrong when a farmer from the next town arrived. The priest belittled this man and called him a fool for going out in the storm. In that moment the communion transformed into the flesh and blood of Christ, thus demonstrating the importance of the farmer’s devotion. It is said that a statue of the Madonna leaned over in adoration when this event occurred. She is now called “La Virgen del Milagro.” During the Monarchical pilgrimage to the Compostela, Queen Isabella was so moved by the story of the miracle that she had a crystal shrine made for the relics.

       

Unfortunately, during the Spanish War of Independence, the Church of Santa Maria was burned down and what we see now is a reconstruction of the church built from 1965-71. During this time, the Camino Frances was being rediscovered and modernized by a priest by the name of Don Elias Valina Sampedro. One of Don Elias’s most visible contributions to the Camino is the yellow arrows that so graciously point our way. Don Elias is buried in the church and there is a bust to celebrate his contributions to the Camino.

The day was not over yet and we still had many more miles to march as we made our long descent into Triacastela. Luckily there were many bars to stop and rest along the way! In one of them, Sarah and Louisa were delighted to find chestnut cake characteristic of the region’s historic chestnut agriculture. Chestnuts were introduced by the Romans to Galicia and were a staple of the Galician diet until the 18th century, when they were near-eradicated due to a blight and replaced by the potato. An ancient and stately chestnut tree along the Camino entering Triacastela greeted the blister-weary Fordham peregrinos, welcoming them to the charming town named after the three castles that once defended this strategic mountain pass into Galicia.
~Sarah and Shanly

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O Pedrouzo

Oh how the road was long from Melide to O Pedrouzo, but it was quite a lovely one. While beginning in the dark was rather disorienting, the experience led to one of the most beautiful landscapes we encountered along the Camino. As we began to be able to see with morning’s first light, the fog from Galicia’s humid air left a eerily beautiful aura to everything we saw. Although the trek did not have much altitude, the walk was about 25 miles, which can take a toll for sure. It is recommended that even the most active should take regular breaks to prevent overuse injuries the next day, especially considering this is the day before one would be walking into Santiago.

Because of its length, the walk to O Pedrouzo gave us ample time to ponder the topics that we discussed the evening before. As our time on the pilgrimage drew to a close, Owen challenged us to think about how our own pilgrimage fit into the vast array network of global pilgrimages.

When we talked about Pilgrimage around the world, we recognized that the Camino has two different experiential shocks to our system. the first is a culture shock of being in another country with all its differences. The second is a lifestyle shock due to the fact that walking the Camino is a lifestyle that none of us is really that used to. Beyond that, we talked about different pilgrimages around the world and how they are similar or different. the one mentioned were the Camino of course, the Hajj to Mecca, and a buddhist Pilgrimage call the Shikoku pilgrimage in Japan. From there we considered what are some possible pilgrimages that we can see in the United States. Some mentioned were backpacking trails like the Appalachian trail, religious routes like a route that mormons take to commemorate the beginnings of Mormonism, and, most comically, Disneyland, which for some conjures up enthusiasm and commitment similar to religious fervor.

I13521854_10204840036439317_292669504313480556_nn order to complete any of these pilgrimages, preparation is key. We found this to be particularly true for this, the longest walk. Many of us left far before the sun was up, in some cases as early as 5:00 or 5:30. At that hour of the morning, flashlights become a hot commodity, so it is important to either come prepared or, in many of our cases, make sure to befriend people who seem responsible enough to be prepared.

On walks this long, it is also important to take lots of breaks. Breakfast breaks, coffee breaks, lunch breaks, stretch breaks, and second lunch breaks are all completely acceptable forms of rest and much needed relaxation. It is essential not to be afraid of stopping when your body needs it. Be aware that the beginning of the walk has a few places to stop, but there is a long stretch where there is very little. Make sure to stock up on snacks and water when possible.

By this point of the Camino, we were all a little tired of tortilla. A lot of us tried to branch out whenever possible (contrary to popular opinion, some of us thought trying the pig’s ear was an adventure and not to be missed). Lots of places like Melide provided a great opportunity to try assortments of food we had never encountered before. The seafood in all of Galicia is world renowned, and can give any pilgrim’s palate a welcome respite from the ever present pork of the Camino.

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The presence of pork products like ham and lomo (loin) is no accident. Historical anti-Jewish and anti-Muslim sentiments have contributed to the prevalence of pork products in Spain. Pork was used as a way to reassert a “Christian identity” after the Moors left Spain, and was used by the Inquisition to root out Jews in hiding. While pilgrims should enjoy traditional Spanish foods like lomo and croquetas, awareness of the historical background of these staples can help peregrinos understand the ways in which seemingly benign aspects of the Camino are subtly political in nature.

  • By Owen and Mary

 

 

Portomarín

The 20 kilometer walk from Sarria to Portomarín was fairly flat and a mix of isolated dirt paths and roadside walking.  Near the end, the path split in two and we could either walk on a shorter, very steep path or on a longer, flatter path that followed the road. As I have been having some knee problems, I opted for the longer road path, which followed a small road past homes and small farms.

To get to Portomarín, pilgrims walk across a large bridge that ends with a large staircase leading to the town. Portomarín is a town in the Lugo providence and currently has a population of about 2000. A bridge across the Mino river by this town has existed since at least 993 and was the site of many conflicts during the Medieval period. As such, Portomarín was an important military and commercial town throughout history.

However, the old town of Portomarín did not exist in the exact place where the current town is. In 1956, construction began on the Embalse de Belesar dam. As a result, the water level in the Mino river rose, putting the entire town of Portomarín under water. However, the most important buildings in Portomarín were saved from the flooding as they were moved up to higher ground brick by brick. When the water in the river is low, one can still see remnants of the old town  and bridge in the water.
One of the buildings moved was the Church of San Juan of Portomarín, which is a late Romanesque church originally designed to be both a church and a castle. As a result, the building contains components of both structures including walkways protected by battlements as well as tympanums and rose windows. The church has the largest single nave in a Romanesque church in Galicia. In the late 12th and early 13th century the church housed knights and was visited by many catholic monarchs. Today, the church houses the parish of San Nicolas. Next to the church, the Pazo de la Marquesa de Boreda, a 17th century palace, has also been reconstructed.
Our albergue in Portomarín was one of the most unique hostels we stayed at on our trip. Rather than staying in rooms housing 6-25 of us in each room, this albergue had only a single dormitory room with well over a hundred beds all in the same room. Though staying in a room with that many people was mildly overwhelming, all appreciated the cleanliness and efficiency of the albergue. Since most of us were quite tired upon arriving to Portomarín, we had a relaxed evening in the hostel and at restaurants nearby.
sada
Alison

Santiago de Compostela

After walking 311 kilometers from León to Santiago de Compostela in two weeks, finally arriving in Santiago was a surreal experience. Walking into the square in front of the beautiful Cathedral of St. James, we celebrated our achievement with our fellow pilgrims from Fordham and those we had met along the way. The city of Santiago de Compostela is legendarily the resting place of St. James, revealed to a local shepherd by a miraculous guiding light in 813. The cathedral was built upon the site where his remains were supposedly found, and is both the center of the medieval city and the ending point of the Camino. It has been repeatedly renovated since its construction, and now features a famous baroque façade facing out onto the main square, completed in the 1700s. Although this façade was partially covered in scaffolding during our visit, the cathedral was still a glorious sight to behold.

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The Fordham peregrinos, all dressed up in front of the cathedral a day after completing the Camino!

Once we had all arrived in Santiago, we attended a mass, where we were fortunate to be able to experience the Botafumiero, the largest censer in the world, which swings high above the worshippers at speeds of up to 45 miles per hour. Watching the enormous censer come improbably close to the ceiling of the cathedral was breathtaking, and one of the highlights of our time in Santiago. We also were able to take a tour of the roof of the cathedral, which provided absolutely stunning views of the city of Santiago, as well as an opportunity to see parts of a cathedral that usually are hidden from view. Some Fordham peregrinos thought that the view from the cathedral’s roof was the most beautiful one they saw during the whole Camino – it was a breathtaking vista, and an amazing way to cap off our walk.

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View from the roof of the cathedral

In Santiago, pilgrims can receive their compostelas – certificates stating that they have walked at least 100 kilometers, as demonstrated by a completed pilgrim’s passport with stamps collected along the way. The compostela is given to any pilgrim who says they walked the Camino with at least a partially religious or spiritual motivation, and also is an indulgence, for Catholic pilgrims. A tip that many of us discovered is that large groups can fill out one form with all their information rather than wait on the long line, and return later in the day to pick up their completed compostelas from the pilgrim’s office. The compostela certificates are beautifully decorated and include a Latin version of your name, and for a few extra euros, come with a separate certificate stating how many miles you walked.

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A completed pilgrim’s passport, ready to get a compostela!

While Santiago was a beautiful city with lots of important medieval history, for many pilgrims the best part of the city is the simple experience of walking into it, turning into the courtyard and being greeted with celebrations and congratulations from all those who you have walked alongside. No matter what reason one chooses to walk the Camino, succeeding in reaching Santiago is a moment of pride, accomplishment and emotion.

-Allie Burns

Melide

Day 12 is the walk from Palas de Rei to Melide and is one of the more unremarkable on the Camino. The walk is 14.6 Kilometers or 9.1 Miles and is actually one of the shorter walks! This is because the walk that follows, from Melide to O Pedrouzo is the longest on the Camino. The walk itself is more of the Galician countryside you will have by this point grown accustomed too since Triacastela. It follows a winding path through farms in which you will be surrounded by more cattle than people for a vast majority off. This path is actually remarkably shady especially compared to the walks both directly preceding and after it. The walk to Palas de Rei from Portomarin the day before is a remarkably ordinary one of 24.1 kilometers or 15 miles and should not cause any injury for this day’s walk. MelideAs the walk to Melide is short enough that someone moving at 15-minute miles can actually complete it in 2 ½ hours it is tempting to race in order to maximize the time spent in recovery at your destination. I would advise against this however for three reasons, firstly the way is particularly shaded and thus you are spared from the sun, especially near the end where you are completely off road and traveling on a dirt path enclosed on both sides by foliage. The second relevant point is the fact that the Albergue we stayed in during the Camino of 2016 year did not open until 11am anyway. The third and most relevant point is the fact that Melide is an uninteresting city when compared to others on the Camino and carries no large historical connotation besides its inception and continued existence being reliant as a rest stop on the Camino. After sampling two of the regions signature dishes, Octopus and Pigs Ears, we made the interesting discovery of a Restaurant that specifically catered to a Vegan diet, among other options! The Albergue itself featured a floor of dormitory living as well as the first reliable Wi-Fi since Sarria. In closing Melide should be a restful stopover, as you will most likely be pushed to leave earlier tomorrow then any other day.

Also do not allow any amount of peer pressure influence your decision to partake in the Pigs Ears.

Conner

  • Photo credit to Tiffany!

Villafranca del Bierzo

The walk to Villafranca del Bierzo is one of the most beautiful on the Camino from León to Santiago. Vineyards that extend for miles around and gentle rolling hills on mostly dirt or gravel paths allow for some blister recovery.

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You will emerge from a long walk through the vineyards into Cacabelos, a town that begs you to forgo the rest of the walk to Villafranca and call it quits for the day. The recommendation I feel most strongly about along this walk is to stop at a restaurant called Moncloa in Cacabelos. The ambiance is nothing short of incredible, and the best way I can describe it is as the closest thing to Rivendell I’ve ever experienced. Light streams through a canopy of leaves and calming instrumental music plays. Every time you walk into the gift shop (I walked in twice) they hand you a full glass of wine and a small sandwich. This taste of what they serve, however, is not nearly enough. A bottle (or two) of wine country wine is necessary, as well as some Caldo de Gallego and warm goat cheese with a variety of jams. To make my own experience even more surreal, a baby bird found its way into the gift shop as we browsed their merchandise, and as most people freaked out, Sarah said quietly, “I know how to help.” So we grabbed their attention, and like a Disney princess, she gently caught the bird and held it in her hands, then tossed it into the air so it was able to flutter away.

The people in Cacabelos are another aspect of its charm. From a talkative and picturesque group of elderly people sharing a long bench in the shade to the woman on the side of the road who insisted on giving us an entire basket of cherries she had just picked off of the tree and would not accept our money, they made this walk even more special. Another piece of advice: buy cherries on this walk; they are phenomenal.

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Villafranca del Bierzo itself is a beautiful place with a rich history. The first human settlements date to the last part of the Stone Age. Villafranca del Bierzo was the headquarters for an army of more than 40,000 men during the Spanish War for Independence. The Spanish War for Independence overlaps with the Peninsular War and the Napoleonic Wars in the beginning of the 19th century. The war started with the uprising on the 2nd of May in 1808 and ended in 1814. The Spanish painter Francisco de Goya’s famous paintings The Second of May 1808 and The Third of May 1808 commemorate Spanish resistance to Napoleon’s armies. Both are now in the Museo del Prado in Madrid.

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The Captain General of Galicia Antonio Filangieri established Villafranca as his headquarters, but later resigned from office in Villafranca due to illness. However, there is speculation that he was dismissed by Galician authorities. Right after leaving office, he was killed by undisciplined soldiers. Whether the motive was to avenge past grievances or if the murder was part of a larger plot related to his suspicious resignation is unknown.

IMG_4881Villafranca del Bierzo is a historically important stop on the Camino. Since the 9th century, pilgrims have been stopping at Villafranca for the night as a natural break before the steep climb to O Cebreiro. In 1070, a Cluniac monastery was founded in Villafranca to cultivate wine, and a borough of French pilgrims rose around it, from which the town’s name, “French town”, stems. Hospitals and hotels for pilgrims later sprung up in the town.

Villafranca is called “Little Compostela” or “La Pequeña Compostela” because La Iglesia de Santiago Apóstol is the only temple along the Camino other than the one in Santiago where pilgrims could and still can receive plenary indulgences. The requirements are walking the necessary distance, attending mass and saying prayers, and being able to prove that you cannot go on to Santiago due to illness or physical weakness. Because of this, the door of the Church is called La Puerta del Perdón.

-Delaney Coveno

 

The 2016 Silver Censer Awards

Since time immemorial (or since Fordham’s first Camino), the Silver Censer Awards have capped off the Fordham Pilgrims’ Experience. A mixture of traditional and new awards, every peregrino and peregrina receives a token of appreciation from the staff, together with their very own nickname. This year, the Silver Censer Awards were held at El Gato Negro and emceed by our chaperones, Louisa and Rachel. The complete list of winners is below:

Traditional Awards

The Coco Chanel Award for the Most Fashionable Pilgrim – Katherine

The Pathfinder Award for Blazing a Trail (and in this particular case, for getting lost in a pasture, too) – Dan Salerno

The Florence Nightingale Award for Compassionate Blister Care – Francis

The Little Miss Sunshine Award for Irrepressible Cheer – Delaney

The Moonbeam Award for Quiet but Irreplaceable Positivity – Jennifer

The Energizer Bunny Award for Absolutely Incredible Energy – Kara

New Awards

The Dora the Explorer Award for Fearless Hiking and Great Gear – Dan Sullivan

The Boots Award for Sticking with Dora and Hiking in Seemingly Impractical Footwear – Connor

The Disney Princess Award for Charming Spanish Wildlife – Sarah

The Jason and the Argonaut Award for Trekking through Uncharted Territory – Alexa and Katrine

The Ansel Adams Award for Outstanding Photography – Travis

The Imperator Furiosa Award for Fierce Domination of the Trail – Jacqueline

The Lemony Snicket Award for Suffering (and Overcoming!) a Series of Unforunate Events – Allie

The Unsinkable Molly Brown Award for Sailing through Adversity – Shandley

The Linneus Award for Attention to Spanish Ecology – Allison

The Artemis Award for Respecting Nature in All Forms and Possessing a Warrior Spirit – Tiffany

The Georgia O’Keefe Award for Artistic Achievement- Hania

The Bear Grylls Award for Wilderness Preparation (and for  being able to find a pub, even when dropped in the middle of nowhere) – Owen

The Scarlett O’Hara Award for Southern Elegance even in Decidedly Inelegant Circumstances – Mary

The Anthony Bourdain Award for Culinary Curiosity – Gavin

The King of Spain Award for Charming a Nation – Ian

And to our absolutely irreplaceable staff:

The Alcott Award for Embodying the Spirit of Jo – Louisa

The Metamorphosis Award for Turning from Human to Mama Bear and Back Again – Rachel

For offering emotional and physical succor, for her deep understanding of Franciscan spirituality and for being basically the best, to the newly-minted Doctor Egler, the Beloved Friaress Award.

For completing his fifth Camino, for carrying a pack the size of a small child, for getting every Fordham student in his groups to Santiago without harm and, above all, for being the best pilgrim on the Way, to Dr. Myers, the Peregrinissimo Award.

 

 

Rabanal del Camino

For this walk, the Fordham pelegrinos trekked from the urban sprawl of Astorga to a sleepy little Maragoto village named Rabanal del Camino. The walk itself had its challenges, given that the first few kilometers were spent exiting the outskirts of Astorga via rocky pathways alongside the highway. Once this section of the Camino was completed, however, we found ourselves in a charming little town where most students stopped to grab a pincho de tortilla, refill their water bottles, and prepare themselves–and their mochilas–for the impending rainfall. Luckily for us, the rain didn’t appear until the very last few kilometers, after students had already had the opportunity to take in some truly breathtaking patches of land, drink cervezas at the now infamous “cowboy” bar, and chat with a Camino-pro-turned-falconer on the side of the trail.

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Given Rabanal’s small size, we knew that this isolated village would be very limited, especially in comparison to Astorga’s urban amenities. Camino traffic, after all, is one of the core lifelines of this dusty little town. We were all thrilled to see, therefore, that our albergue for the night–el Albergue Nuestra Señora del Pilar–came equipped with a fully stocked restaurant and bar, decent showers, and some of the most charming social spaces we have yet to see on the Camino. In fact, Nuestra Señora del Pilar’s open concept and canopy layout made the entire establishment feel like a hidden treehouse, tucked safely away from the weary Camino trail. After a night of laughs, vino tintos, and good food, Nuestra Señora del Pilar became a fan favorite among Fordham’s peregrinos.

Before our nightly festivities could begin, however, we made our way to la Iglesia de Santa María de la Asunción, a Romanesque church that is presently operated by the Benedictine monks of San Salvador del Monte Irago. These German monks restored the church in 2001, after the Benedictines of St. Ottilien saw an opportunity to create a transient spiritual community out of the incoming/outgoing foot traffic. The monks also maintain a small albergue across the street from the church, where pilgrims can stay for a period of 3-10 days and pray alongside the monks. It’s a truly spectacular group of monks, one that certainly gives back to its surrounding community in spades. It came as a great surprise to us, then, that these monks were banished from the town in August of 2001 by a mob of local townspeople, after the Benedictines had requested and subsequently received a loan of one million euros from Castilla-León to restore their church. This recent event proved to be an interesting point of discussion for us, as it demonstrates the oftentimes vexing relationship that peregrinos share with the communities that house them. On the one hand, villages like Rabanal undoubtedly depend on Camino travelers to survive; that does not mean, however, that these poor communities do not have needs of their own that could be foreseeable remedied by loans from their parent regions.

In this way, the events at San Salvador del Monte Irago provides a lens through which we can better understand the Camino in a more contemporary, engaging sense. It’s certainly important to understand the historic importance of the pilgrimage; but it is critical that we understand the Camino as it exists in its modern landscape — a landscape that is certainly marked by its rich history, but also occasionally by frustration and contention.

-Katherine Burks

Palas de Rei

Palas de Rei, where we arrived on June 5, has been a stop on the Camino de Santiago since ancient times. According to tradition, the city is named for a Visigoth king, Witiza, who ruled the area in the early eighth century. The city has long been linked to Spanish military history and has a very well-preserved castle from the 14th century. The city seems to have really expanded as the popularity of the Camino has grown, leaving the city as an interesting mix between the medieval and the modern.

The walk to Palas de Rei was long but very enjoyable. We had excellent weather, which always makes the day’s walk better. The day started out with some nice fog which helped to cool off the Spanish Sun that Dr. Myers always warns us about! A tip for future peregrinos and peregrinas: the first place to stop for food isn’t for several kilometers outside of Portomarín, so if you walk better after having eaten some food, either eat something in Portomarín or bring some food to snack on along the way.

We split up for lunch, with some of us going to a Pulperia (home of the famous Galician octopus, or pulpo as it’s called here) and others getting some burgers at a local pub. Because it was a Sunday, a group went to the Church in town where one of our Camino friends, a bishop from Brazil, said Mass. We met this Bishop initially in Rabanal where he said Mass at the monastery there, and we’ve walked alongside the Bishop ever since. For dinner, we enjoyed a group meal at our albergue. Our albergue was very cool – we had the entire third floor to ourselves, which had some nice sitting areas in addition to the usual bunk beds. Several of us did experience some issues with the motion-detected lighting, which seems to be a common lighting trend along the Camino. Waving one’s hands in the air or opening doors tends to turn the lights back on (another tip for future Caministos and Caministas!).

In Palas de Rei, we also focused on domestic medieval architecture and city planning. Unfortunately, many homes of medieval peasants did not survive, so much of what we know about this topic comes from surviving wealthier houses or urban areas. Most medieval houses were built of wood, with the more expensive ones having stone, and had relatively small windows. In cities, some houses were built almost like townhouses, with houses adjoining and external staircases leading to higher floors. Medieval Spanish towns were typically enclosed by walls to protect against invaders, so builders had to look up instead of out. These towns were often planned block by block rather than in a coordinated gridiron system unless they were built on ruins. One of the most prominent features of the Spanish medieval town that remains a prominent focus in many cities, the Plaza Mayor, was actually inspired by Islamic architecture where a town had a central space in town for all of the major municipal buildings.

Written by: Kara Hurley

Ponferrada

Walk:
From Molinaseca the walk takes roughly 1.5 hours. The Camino splits in two shortly after leaving Molinaseca. The right goes along a road and the left is slightly more scenic but also a bit longer. Each route includes numerous places to stop and get breakfast or cafe con leche. In order to enter the city you must cross a bridge.

Templar Castle:
IMG_6068Originally built by the Celts, the Castillo de low Templarios was expanded by the Romans, Templars, and Spanish land owners across seven centuries. The original towers mimic constellations, and the castle has one and two lines of fortifications with the Sil River bordering one side. The Poor Fellow-Soldiers of Christ and of the Temple of Solomon, more commonly called the Templars, took control of the castle in 1211 after Alfonso IX granted it to them. They expand d it to protest pilgrims walking the Camino. The castle currently sits along the stretch of the Camino passing through Ponferrada. The castle now contains roughly 1400 books in its Templar library. From the outside the Castle looms over the area around it, and serves as a fantastic back drop for pictures or a picnic. Unfortunately the inside does not live up to the outside. The structure seen from the street and the structure of the inside are hugely similar. The Castle is also closed on Mondays; look up the hours of any place you plan on visiting before you try to go there.

Roman Mines:
IMG_6176Las Medulas is a UNESCO heritage site and the best preserved mine from the Roman Empire. It was built in 1AD and was operated for approximately 250 years, during which 1.65 million kg of gold was extracted by 60,000 slaves per year. The hydraulic mining methods used by the Romans created a stark geologic contrast between the surrounding lush green mountaintops and the red tinted, jagged, and bare bedrock of the Las Medulas mines. This long-term environmental scarring was facillitated through the use of aqueducts, which supplied the water necessary for breaking down bedrock to reveal gold. The mine is about 25km from Ponferrada; only a thirty minute bus ride away. The ride is scenic although slightly nauseating due to the winding mountain pass and elevation. The first destination includes a lovely walk, which allows for leisurely exploration of the red tinged mines and tunnels. There are numerous paths and possibilities for adventurous exploration, if visitors are so inclined. It is strongly suggested that visitors wear boots, bring water, snacks, and a camera to capture the panoramic views. The second recommended destination includes an extra ten minute bus ride to the Mirador, one of the most spectacular views available in Northern Spain.

Frances and Hania